Digital Maps and Geospatial Data | Princeton University
[Topographic map of northern central Syria, il-‘Alā - Djebel il -Ḥaṣṣ, west of the Orontes river] : [showing the itinerary of the Princeton University Archaeological Expeditions to Syria from 1899 to1909] / [surveyed attributed to Robert Garrett ; Edward Royal Stoever ; and Frederick A. Norris ] ; place names by Howard Crosby Butler (GeoTIFF)
- Butler, Howard Crosby, 1879-1922
- [Princeton, NJ] : Howard Crosby Buttler Archive, 1899-1909
- Relief is shown by hachures and spot heights. This manuscript topographic map illustrates the routes explored from 1899-1900, 1904,-1905 and 1909 by the Princeton University archaeological expeditions to Syria under the direction of professor Howard Crosby Butler, Princeton University Class of 1892. The map is kept in the Howard Crosby Butler Archive, Department of Art and Archaeology, Princeton University. A section of this map is included in the Publications of the Princeton University archaeological expeditions to Syria in 1904-5 and 1909. Place names are modern and ancient (Greek transliteration). "Red dotted line = routes of the Princeton expedition 1899-1900; 1904-1905, and 1909". Explored buildings with inscriptions, architectural monuments and archaeological sites are located. Map shows aqueduct; remains of the road to Tripolis and of Roman road to Palmyra; ancient roads ; roads drawn by pencil had names perhaps of explorers. In lower right corner: "#2" "The instruments used were a prismatic compass, a twelve-inch theodolite with solar attachment, three specially selected Waltham watches, an aneroid barometer, and a boiling-point thermometer. The plan adopted in general was to keep a compass dead reckoning, assuming the pace to be an average of two and three-quarters miles per hour for ordinary going, and three miles per hour on good roads. For more accurate determination of locations the theodolite was used. Whenever there was a sufficient elevation the theodolite was set up and oriented by the magnetic needle, and sights were taken to prominent objects such as hills, towns, and ruins. From the natives also the approximate distances to these places were obtained, generally in hours of travel on foot; but these estimates of distance were rarely accurate. It was possible, however, to intersect a good many of these points from the next observation site." -Note from H.C. Butler, [and others].
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